Carbon Dioxide

LATEST MEASUREMENT: July 2017
406.69
Parts
per million

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important heat-trapping (greenhouse) gas, which is released through human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, as well as natural processes such as respiration and volcanic eruptions. The first graph shows atmospheric CO2 levels measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, in recent years, with average seasonal cycle removed. The second graph shows CO2 levels during the last three glacial cycles, as reconstructed from ice cores.The time series below shows global distribution and variation of the concentration of mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide in parts per million (ppm). The overall color of the map shifts toward the red with advancing time due to the annual increase of CO2.

Global Temperature

LATEST ANNUAL AVERAGE: 2016
+0.99
°C  

This graph illustrates the change in global surface temperature relative to 1951-1980 average temperatures. Sixteen of the 17 warmest years in the 136-year record all have occurred since 2001, with the exception of 1998. The year 2016 ranks as the warmest on record. (Source: NASA/GISS). This research is broadly consistent with similar constructions prepared by the Climatic Research Unit and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The time series below shows the five-year average variation of global surface temperatures. Dark blue indicates areas cooler than average. Dark red indicates areas warmer than average.

GLOBAL LAND-OCEAN TEMPERATURE INDEX

Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

RATE OF CHANGE
-13.3
Percent
per decade

Arctic sea ice reaches its minimum each September. September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 13.3 percent per decade, relative to the 1981 to 2010 average. This graph shows the average monthly Arctic sea ice extent in September since 1979, derived from satellite observations.

The animated time series below shows the annual Arctic sea ice minimum since 1979, based on satellite observations. The 2012 sea ice extent is the lowest in the satellite record.

Land Ice

Data from NASA's GRACE satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland have been losing mass since 2002.
Both ice sheets have seen an acceleration of ice mass loss since 2009. (Source: GRACE satellite data)

ANTARCTICA MASS VARIATION SINCE 2002
-127.0
Gigatonnes per year
margin: ±39
GREENLAND MASS VARIATION SINCE 2002
-286.0
Gigatonnes per year
margin: ±21

Sea Level

RATE OF CHANGE
+3.4
Millimeters
per year

Sea level rise is caused primarily by two factors related to global warming: the added water from melting ice sheets and glaciers and the expansion of sea water as it warms. The first graph tracks the change in sea level since 1993 as observed by satellites.

The second graph, derived from coastal tide gauge data, shows how much sea level changed from about 1870 to 2000.